Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

1. NHS.UK. Physical activity guidelines for adults. 2018


2. Sofi F, Valecchi D, Bacci D, et al.  Physical activity and risk of cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Intern Med 2011;269(1):107-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02281.


3. Brown BM, Peiffer JJ, Martins RN. Multiple effects of physical activity on molecular and cognitive signs of brain aging: can exercise slow neurodegeneration and delay Alzheimer's disease? Mol Psychiatry 2013;18(8):864-74. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.162


4. Jensen CS, Hasselbalch SG, Waldemar G, et al. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Systematic Review and Perspectives. Front Neurol 2015;6:187. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00187


5. Wortmann M. World Alzheimer report 2014: Dementia and risk reduction. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association 2015;11(7):P837.


6. Newman AB, Fitzpatrick AL, Lopez O, et al. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease incidence in relationship to cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53(7):1101-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53360.


7. Hayden KM, Zandi PP, Lyketsos CG, et al. Vascular risk factors for incident Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia: the Cache County study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2006;20(2):93-100. doi: 10.1097/01.wad.0000213814.43047.86


8. Savva GM, Stephan BC, Alzheimer's Society Vascular Dementia Systematic Review G. Epidemiological studies of the effect of stroke on incident dementia: a systematic review. Stroke 2010;41(1):e41-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.559880


9. Topiwala A, Ebmeier KP. Effects of drinking on late-life brain and cognition. Evid Based Ment Health 2018;21(1):12-15. doi: 10.1136/eb-2017-102820


10. Lupien SJ, de Leon M, de Santi S, et al. Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nat Neurosci 1998;1(1):69-73. doi: 10.1038/271


11. NHS.UK. New alcohol advice issued. 2016


12. Prina AM, Ferri CP, Guerra M, et al. Co-occurrence of anxiety and depression amongst older adults in low- and middle-income countries: findings from the 10/66 study. Psychol Med 2011;41(10):2047-56. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711000444


13. Butters MA, Young JB, Lopez O, et al. Pathways linking late-life depression to persistent cognitive impairment and dementia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2008;10(3):345-57.


14. McEwen BS. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of the brain. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2006;8(4):367-81.


15. Lupien SJ, Fiocco A, Wan N, et al. Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005;30(3):225-42. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.08.003


16. Andrieu S, Aboderin I, Baeyens JP, et al. IAGG workshop: health promotion program on prevention of late onset dementia. J Nutr Health Aging 2011;15(7):562-75.


17. Peter-Derex L, Yammine P, Bastuji H, et al. Sleep and Alzheimer's disease. Sleep Med Rev 2015;19:29-38. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2014.03.007


18. Ju YE, Lucey BP, Holtzman DM. Sleep and Alzheimer disease pathology--a bidirectional relationship. Nat Rev Neurol 2014;10(2):115-9. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2013.269


19. Kang JE, Lim MM, Bateman RJ, et al. Amyloid-beta dynamics are regulated by orexin and the sleep-wake cycle. Science 2009;326(5955):1005-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1180962


20. Kuiper JS, Zuidersma M, Oude Voshaar RC, et al. Social relationships and risk of dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. Ageing Res Rev 2015;22:39-57. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2015.04.006


21. Yang YC, Boen C, Gerken K, et al. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113(3):578-83. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1511085112


22. Hemingway H, Marmot M. Evidence based cardiology: psychosocial factors in the aetiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease. Systematic review of prospective cohort studies. BMJ 1999;318(7196):1460-7.


23. Santini ZI, Koyanagi A, Tyrovolas S, et al. The association between social relationships and depression: a systematic review. Journal of affective disorders 2015;175:53-65.


24. Saczynski JS, Jonsdottir MK, Sigurdsson S, et al. White matter lesions and cognitive performance: the role of cognitively complex leisure activity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63(8):848-54.


25. Cabeza R, Anderson ND, Locantore JK, et al. Aging gracefully: compensatory brain activity in high-performing older adults. Neuroimage 2002;17(3):1394-402.


26. Wilson RS, Boyle PA, Yu L, et al. Life-span cognitive activity, neuropathologic burden, and cognitive aging. Neurology 2013;81(4):314-21. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31829c5e8a


27. Lourida I, Hannon E, Littlejohns TJ, et al. Association of lifestyle and genetic risk with incidence of dementia. JAMA 2019; 322(5): 430-437].


28. Gallacher J1, Bayer A, Fish M, Pickering J, Pedro S, Dunstan F, Ebrahim S, Ben-Shlomo YDoes anxiety affect risk of dementia? Findings from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Psychosom Med. 2009 Jul;71(6):659-66. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181a6177c. Epub 2009 Jun 24.


29.  Wilson RS, Krueger KR, Arnold SE, et al. Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64(2): 234-240.

30.  Ybarra O, Burnstein E, Winkielman P, et al. Mental exercising through simple socialising: social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2008; 34(2): 248-259.

31. Landau SM, Marks SM, Mormino EC, et al. Association of lifetime cognitive engagement and low β-amyloid deposition. Arch Neurol 2012; 69(5): 623-629.

32.  Najar J, Östling S, Gudmundsson P, et al. Cognitive and physical activity and dementia. Neurology 2019; 92: e1322-e1330.